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每日跟讀#524: Athletes Don’t Own Their Tattoos. That’s a Problem for Video Game Developers.

刺青著作權歸誰? 運動員身上刺青不是自己的

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

每日跟讀#524: Athletes Don’t Own Their Tattoos. That’s a Problem for Video Game Developers.

Athletes Don’t Own Their Tattoos

運動員身上刺青不是自己的

When LeBron James bounds down a basketball court, he is both a transcendent athlete and a prominent palette for dozens of tattoos. His mother’s name, Gloria, rests on a crown on his right shoulder and his forearms bear a portrait of his son LeBron Jr. and 330, an area code for his hometown, Akron, Ohio.

當球星詹姆斯(詹皇)奔騰於球場時,他既是個超群的運動員,也是塊吸睛的刺青展示板。他母親的名字葛洛莉亞出現在他右肩的皇冠刺青上,而他左右前臂上則刺有兒子詹姆斯二世的肖像,以及330——他的家鄉俄亥俄州阿克隆市的區碼。

Although those tattoos have personal connections, they may not truly be his.

雖說這些刺青全和他個人有關,卻不一定真為他所有。

Any creative illustration “fixed in a tangible medium” is eligible for copyright, and, according to the U.S. Copyright Office, that includes the ink displayed on someone’s skin. What many people don’t realize, legal experts said, is that the copyright is inherently owned by the tattoo artist, not the person with the tattoos.

任何「固著於有形實體上的」創作圖文,都可享有著作權。根據美國著作權局的說法,這包括展示於某人身上的刺青。法律專家說,許多人不知道的是,刺青的著作權當然屬於施作刺青的藝師,而非被刺青者。

For most people, that is not a cause for concern. Lawyers generally agree that an implied license allows people to freely display their tattoos in public, including on television broadcasts or magazine covers. But when tattoos are digitally re-created on avatars in sports video games, copyright infringement can become an issue.

絕大部分的人不須擔心這一點。律師們基本上都同意,刺青藝師默許人們在公共場合自由展示身上的刺青,包括在電視播放中和雜誌封面上。但當這些刺青經數位重造出現在電玩遊戲中的運動員替身上時,就可能有侵權問題。

“Video games are an entirely new area,” said Michael A. Kahn, a copyright lawyer who represented the designer of the face tattoo on boxer Mike Tyson. “There is LeBron James, but it’s not LeBron James. It’s a cartoon version of him.”

「電玩是個全新的領域。」版權律師康恩說,「這既是詹姆斯,又不是詹姆斯。這是卡通版本的他。」康恩是拳王泰森臉上刺青設計者的代理人。

Electronic Arts, a game developer and publisher, re-creates more than 100 tattoos in its FIFA and UFC games, including the colorful sleeve on the right arm of soccer star Lionel Messi and a heart-eating gorilla on the chest of fighter Conor McGregor. Yet only a handful of players in its Madden football games are depicted with their real-life ink.

美商藝電是電玩的開發兼發行業者,在旗下的國際足盟大賽系列和綜合格鬥技系列遊戲裡,重現了超過一百個刺青,包括球星梅西的全幅右臂刺青,和格鬥選手麥葛瑞格胸膛上那叼著紅心的猩猩刺青。但僅有少數選手的刺青,被原樣重現在勁爆美式足球的系列遊戲裡。

Spokesmen for Electronic Arts did not respond to requests for comment. The company faced a copyright infringement lawsuit after the cover of the game NFL Street included an illustration of running back Ricky Williams and some of his tattoos, but the artist withdrew his claim in 2013.

對於媒體的詢問,美商藝電的發言人並未回應。這間公司曾吃上侵權官司,因為在電玩街頭橄欖球的封面上秀出了美式足球跑衛瑞奇威廉斯的身影,以及他的一些刺青,不過刺青師已在二○一三年撤告。

Players’ unions, many of which license the players’ likenesses to video game publishers, and sports agents have advised athletes to secure licensing agreements before they get tattooed. Artists have an incentive to sign rather than pass up a client who could be a billboard for their work.

許多運動員工會裡會將運動員的肖像樣貌授權給電玩發行商,運動員的工會與經紀人建議選手們,在刺青前先和刺青師簽下授權合約。刺青師通常都會願意簽,免得丟失了日後可能成為自己作品活廣告的客戶。

Gotti Flores said he has spent at least 40 hours tattooing NFL receiver Mike Evans, one of the few players with tattoos in Madden. He was surprised, he said, that he had to give permission for his work to be reproduced in the game.

刺青師佛羅雷斯說,他已經花了四十多個小時替美式足球外接員伊凡斯刺青。伊凡斯是極少數在電玩勁爆美式足球系列裡身上有刺青的球員之一。對於自己的作品在遊戲裡出現還得經過自己同意,佛羅雷斯頗感意外。

“Really, it didn’t even matter to me,” said Flores, who signed a waiver for no compensation. “It was dope to have my tattoos on there.”

「說真的,我不在乎。」佛羅雷斯無償簽下了授權證書,並說道:「可以在電玩裡看到我的刺青酷爆了!」

Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/336341/web/

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