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每日跟讀#654: EU top jobs explained: who is coming in and what is their role?

三分鐘了解歐盟重要機構及首長

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

每日跟讀#654: EU top jobs explained: who is coming in and what is their role?

On July 16, the European Parliament approved the German Minister of Defense Ursula von der Leyen to be the next European Commission president. Earlier, in late May, around 500 million voters had cast their ballots in the five-yearly European Parliament member election. The following is a summary of the main organs of the European Union and their incoming heads:

歐洲議會七月十六日投票通過,由德國國防部長馮德萊恩接掌下屆歐盟執委會主席;而稍早在五月下旬,歐洲議會完成了五年一度的選舉,由約五億歐盟選民選出議員。以下是歐盟主要機關及其將上任之首長一覽:

European Commission president

Outgoing: Jean-Claude Juncker

Incoming: Ursula von der Leyen

Job spec: Established in the 1957 Treaty of Rome, the president of the European Commission leads the EU’s executive branch, chairing a cabinet of 28 commissioners known as the college, and setting the bloc’s policy agenda over a five-year term. The commission president designate is nominated by the 28 heads of state and government, but they must be elected by a simple majority in the European parliament to formally take on the role. On July 16, then German Minister of Defense Ursula von der Leyen was elected to be the 13th commission president, and the first woman in the post.

歐盟執行委員會主席

卸任:尚-克勞德.容克

上任:烏蘇拉.馮德萊恩

職權:歐盟執委會是歐盟的執行機關,依據一九五七年的羅馬條約而設立。歐盟執委會主席任期五年,領導由二十八名執行委員組成、稱為歐盟執委團的內閣,負責制定執委會之政策議程。歐盟執委會主席之任命,是由歐盟二十八國之元首及政府首長提名人選,然後必須在歐洲議會中通過簡單多數決才能正式當選。歐洲議會於七月十六日通過由德國國防部長馮德萊恩接掌第十三屆歐盟執委會主席,成為擔任該職位的第一位女性。

European Council president

Outgoing: Donald Tusk

Incoming: Charles Michel

Job spec: The 2007 Lisbon Treaty created the current role of a full-time president, appointed by the leaders, who serves a two-and-a-half-year term, with a one-time possibility of renewal. The president represents the EU on the world stage and chairs summits of the European Council, the body on which the 28 leaders sit to give the EU its political direction. The Belgian prime minister, Charles Michel will be the third such president of the European Council. The convention is that the role is filled by former heads of state and government.

歐洲高峰會主席

卸任:唐納.圖斯克

上任:夏爾.米歇爾

職權:此一類似歐盟總統的常任職位,是根據二○○七年的里斯本條約所設立,由歐盟各國領導人推派,任期兩年半,並可連任一次。歐洲高峰會主席對外代表歐盟,並主持由歐盟二十八個成員國的領導人所組成的歐洲高峰會議,為歐盟提供政策方向。比利時總理米歇爾將成為第三位常任的歐峰會主席。此職位按慣例是由成員國的總理、首相或總統所擔任。

European Central Bank president

Outgoing: Mario Draghi

Incoming: Christine Lagarde

Job spec: The ECB is responsible for the monetary policy of the 19 EU member countries that have adopted the euro and acts as central supervisor of their financial institutions. Headquartered in Germany, the bank has been responsible for monetary policy in the euro area since Jan. 1, 1999.

The bank’s president is technically “first among equals” on the governing council that sets the eurozone’s interest rates, but every word issued by the incumbent moves the markets. Mario Draghi’s commitment to do “whatever it takes” to save the euro in large part saved the currency.

The role demands specialist knowledge. Although Lagarde is not an economist, her experience as the outgoing managing director of the International Monetary Fund and as a former French finance minister is regarded by the leaders as being sufficient for the role.

歐洲中央銀行總裁

卸任:馬力歐.德拉吉

上任:克里斯蒂娜.拉加德

職權:歐洲中央銀行負責使用歐元的十九個歐盟成員國的貨幣政策,並擔任其金融機構的中央監管機構。歐洲央行總部位於德國,自一九九九年一月一日起負責歐元區的貨幣政策。

歐洲央行負責歐元利率的調控,央行總裁實為機構之靈魂人物,其所發布的每一個字動輒影響市場。將卸任的德拉吉曾誓言盡一切努力拯救歐元,這在很大程度上也拯救了歐元。

擔任此職務需要專精的知識。雖然將上任的拉加德並非經濟學家,但她是現任國際貨幣基金總裁,並曾任法國財政部長,這樣的經歷被歐盟各國領導人認為足以勝任此職務。

European Parliament president

Outgoing: Antonio Tajani

Incoming: David-Maria Sassoli

Job spec: The president acts as the speaker of the house, chairing debates in the plenary and ensuring parliamentary procedures are followed. They also represent the 751-strong chamber to the world. The term is for two and a half years, which can be renewed once. To be elected, a candidate must win an absolute majority of the valid votes cast. Technically, the election of a president is decided by the MEPs, but the heads of state and government, as key members of their political groups, have a heavy say. The new president, Sassoli, is a member of Italy’s Socialists and Democrats group, which lost out on the commission presidency.

歐洲議會議長

卸任:安東尼奧.塔加尼

上任:大衛-瑪利亞.薩索利

職權:歐洲議會議長主持議會、確保議事遵行程序,並對外代表有七百五十一席的歐洲議會。任期兩年半,可連任一次。要當選,必須贏得有效選票的絕對多數。嚴格來說,議長是由歐洲議會議員所選出,但擔任政黨要角的各國領導人,對議長人選之決定亦有很大的影響力。新任議長薩索利為義大利民主社會黨之一員,該黨在歐盟執委會主席之選舉中敗陣。

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

Outgoing: Federica Mogherini

Incoming: Josep Borrell

Job spec: The idea was that the holder of the post would shape and execute the EU’s foreign and security policy and lead the EU’s diplomatic corps, the European External Action Service. The lack of consensus among the member states on policy has undermined the original vision. The leaders appoint the holder of the post by a qualified majority vote, but the president of the commission must agree with the decision. Spain’s foreign minister, Josep Borrell, 72, will be the fourth high representative.

歐盟外交暨安全政策高級代表

卸任:費德麗卡.莫格里尼

上任:何塞普.波瑞爾

職權:按規畫,此職位是負責制定與執行歐盟的外交及安全政策,並領導歐盟的外交使團──歐盟對外事務部。然而,成員國之間在政策上的缺乏共識,破壞了規畫的初衷。此職位之任命,是由歐盟各國領導人以條件多數決通過選出,但必須經執委會主席同意。七十二歲的西班牙外交部長波瑞爾將擔任第四任高級代表。

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