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每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond


· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond

A single grain of rock lodged in a diamond contains a never-before-found mineral. And that newfound substance could reveal unusual chemical reactions unfolding in the depths of the mantle, the layer of Earth that lies between the planet’s crust and outer core. The entire mantle is about 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick.


Scientists unearthed the mineral from a volcanic site in South Africa known as the Koffiefontein pipe. Shining diamonds speckle the dark, igneous rock that lines the pipe, and the diamonds themselves contain tiny bits of other minerals from hundreds of miles beneath Earth’s surface. Within one of these sparkling stones, scientists found a dark green, opaque mineral that they estimated was forged about 105 miles (170 kilometers) underground.


Scientists noted that, for a mantle mineral, goldschmidtite has a peculiar chemical composition.


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Kenyans rush to swap banknotes as cash ban looms 鈔票禁令在即,肯亞人搶著換鈔

A man walked into a Nairobi car yard and paid for a luxury Mercedes with a mountain of 1,000 shilling ($9 euros) banknotes, desperate to offload cash that would be worthless after September 30.


With the deadline looming before the Central Bank of Kenya bans all old edition 1,000 shilling notes, big fish with their fortunes stashed in cash are under pressure.


A new print of the 1,000 shilling banknote, the largest denomination, was rolled out in June. The operation is aimed at flushing out dirty money being hoarded by tax evaders, crooked businessmen and criminal groups. The central bank in June said there were roughly 218 million 1,000 shilling notes in circulation.


People are getting creative, devising schemes to quickly unload small amounts of their cash. For example, a liquor shop owner gets 500,000 shillings every day to bank together with his daily sales, as a deal with a wealthy guy, and get between five and 10 percent in return.


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