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每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond

南非的鑽石內發現來自地函的神秘礦物

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond

A single grain of rock lodged in a diamond contains a never-before-found mineral. And that newfound substance could reveal unusual chemical reactions unfolding in the depths of the mantle, the layer of Earth that lies between the planet’s crust and outer core. The entire mantle is about 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick.

包裹在一塊鑽石內的小晶粒,含有一種此前從未在鑽石內發現的礦物。這項新發現有望揭示地函深處發生的不尋常化學反應,地球地函位在行星地殼與外地核之間。地球地函的總厚度約1802英里(2900公里)。

Scientists unearthed the mineral from a volcanic site in South Africa known as the Koffiefontein pipe. Shining diamonds speckle the dark, igneous rock that lines the pipe, and the diamonds themselves contain tiny bits of other minerals from hundreds of miles beneath Earth’s surface. Within one of these sparkling stones, scientists found a dark green, opaque mineral that they estimated was forged about 105 miles (170 kilometers) underground.

科學家從南非一處名為「科菲芬丹火山管」的火山區挖出這種礦物。閃閃發亮的鑽石散布在火山管內暗色的火成岩之中,鑽石本身則含有其他來自地表下數百英里的微小礦物。在其中一塊閃亮的石頭內,科學家發現一種暗綠色、不透明的礦物,他們估計這種礦物生成在地底下105英里(170公里)處。

Scientists noted that, for a mantle mineral, goldschmidtite has a peculiar chemical composition.

科學家指出,對地函礦物而言,「針銀碲金礦」具有獨特的化學組成。

Next Article:

Kenyans rush to swap banknotes as cash ban looms 鈔票禁令在即,肯亞人搶著換鈔

A man walked into a Nairobi car yard and paid for a luxury Mercedes with a mountain of 1,000 shilling ($9 euros) banknotes, desperate to offload cash that would be worthless after September 30.

一名男子走進奈洛比市一家汽車展示場,拿出大量1000肯亞先令紙鈔(約9歐元),買下一台豪華賓士轎車,急著將9月30日後就一文不值的現金脫手。

With the deadline looming before the Central Bank of Kenya bans all old edition 1,000 shilling notes, big fish with their fortunes stashed in cash are under pressure.

隨著肯亞中央銀行禁止所有舊版千元先令流通的日期逼近,握有大筆現金的大人物備感壓力。

A new print of the 1,000 shilling banknote, the largest denomination, was rolled out in June. The operation is aimed at flushing out dirty money being hoarded by tax evaders, crooked businessmen and criminal groups. The central bank in June said there were roughly 218 million 1,000 shilling notes in circulation.

最大面額1000先令的新版紙鈔在六月推出,這項行動旨在迫使逃稅者、奸商和犯罪集團,釋出積存的來歷不明財富。肯亞央行六月表示,約有2.18億張千元先令在市面流通。

People are getting creative, devising schemes to quickly unload small amounts of their cash. For example, a liquor shop owner gets 500,000 shillings every day to bank together with his daily sales, as a deal with a wealthy guy, and get between five and 10 percent in return.

人們開始想方設法,擬定可以迅速脫手小額現金的方法。例如,一名酒商和有錢人達成協議,每天幫對方將50萬先令,連同自家營業額存進銀行,藉此收取5%到10%的回饋。

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1322040 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1321332

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