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每日英語跟讀 Ep.969: Dark hair was common among Vikings, genetic study confirms 基因研究證實 維京人可能並非金髮

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

每日英語跟讀 Ep.969: Dark hair was common among Vikings, genetic study confirms

They may have had a reputation for trade, braids and fearsome raids, but the Vikings were far from a single group of flaxen-haired, sea-faring Scandinavians. A genetic study of Viking-age human remains has not only confirmed that Vikings from different parts of Scandinavia set sail for different parts of the world, but has revealed that dark hair was more common among Vikings than Danes today.

維京人或許以貿易、髮辮,以及讓人聞風喪膽的燒殺擄掠聞名,但是他們並非全部來自單一群體,不只是一群亞麻色頭髮、經年航海的斯堪地那維亞人。近日一項維京時代人類遺骸的基因研究,證實維京人從斯堪地那維亞半島的不同地區揚帆航向世界各地,更透露維京人頭髮多為深色,跟今日的丹麥人相比更為普遍。

What’s more, while some were born Vikings, others adopted the culture — or perhaps had it thrust upon them. “Vikings were not restricted to blond Scandinavians,” said Eske Willerslev, a co-author of the research from the University of Cambridge and the University of Copenhagen.

更重要的是,儘管有些北歐人天生就是維京人,其他族群也會吸收維京文化──或是可能被迫接受。該研究由英國劍橋大學和丹麥哥本哈根大學合作,共同作者之一艾斯克‧威勒斯列夫指出:「維京人並非僅限於金髮碧眼的斯堪地那維亞人。」

Writing in the journal Nature, Willerslev and colleagues report how they sequenced the genomes of 442 humans who lived across Europe between about 2,400BC and 1,600AD, with the majority from the Viking age — a period that stretched from around 750AD to 1050AD. The study also drew on existing data from more than 1,000 ancient individuals from non-Viking times, and 3,855 people living today.

在這篇刊登於《自然》期刊的研究中,威勒斯列夫和他的同事闡述他們如何定序四百四十二人的基因體。這些研究對象來自歐洲各地,大約生活在西元前兩千四百年到西元一千六百年間,其中大多數人屬於維京時代──也就是橫跨西元七百五十年到一千零五十年之間的時期。該研究也運用現有的基因資料,其中包括超過一千名並非生活在維京時代的古老人類,以及三千八百五十五名現代人。

Among their results the team found that from the iron age, southern European genes entered Denmark and then spread north, while — to a lesser extent — genes from Asia entered Sweden. “Vikings are, genetically, not purely Scandinavian,” said Willerslev. However, the team found Viking age Scandinavians were not a uniform population, but clustered into three main groups — a finding that suggests Vikings from different parts of Scandinavia did not mix very much.

在他們的研究結果中,團隊發現南歐的基因在鐵器時代進入丹麥,而後往北傳播,也有少部分來自亞洲的基因進入瑞典。威勒斯列夫指出:「維京人,從基因上來說,並非純然是斯堪地那維亞人。」另外,團隊發現維京時代的斯堪地那維亞人並非種族齊一的人口,而是由三個主要族群組成──這項發現顯示:來自斯堪地那維亞不同地區的維京人並未充分融合。

The team found these groups roughly map on to present-day Scandinavian countries, although Vikings from south-west Sweden were genetically similar to their peers in Denmark. Genetic diversity was greatest in coastal regions. Further analysis confirmed the long-standing view that most Vikings in England came from Denmark, as reflected in place names and historical records, while the Baltic region was dominated by Swedish Vikings, and Vikings from Norway ventured to Ireland, Iceland, Greenland and the Isle of Man.

團隊表示,這些族群的分布範圍大約和今日的北歐三國疆界疊合,不過瑞典西南部的維京人在基因上和丹麥維京人較為相近。基因多樣性則在沿岸地區最為顯著。進一步的分析更證實一項存在已久的學界看法:英國大多數的維京人來自丹麥,正如同地名和歷史紀錄反映出的情況,而巴爾幹地區是由瑞典維京人統治,至於挪威的維京人則冒險前往愛爾蘭、冰島、格陵蘭以及今日的英屬曼島。

However, the team says remains from Russia revealed some Vikings from Denmark also travelled east. The study also revealed raids were likely a local affair: the team found four brothers and another relative died in Salme, Estonia, in about 750AD, in what is thought could have been a raid, with others in the party likely to have been from the same part of Sweden.

不過,團隊指出,來自俄國的遺骸顯示,丹麥的維京人也曾往東方旅行。研究也透露維京人的劫掠可能只是「地方事件」:團隊發現,有四名兄弟和一名親戚,大約在西元七百五十年死於愛沙尼亞的薩爾梅,看起來是一場劫掠的結果,其他參與者可能也來自瑞典的同一個地區。

In addition, the team found two individuals from Orkney, who were buried with Viking swords, had no Scandinavian genetic ancestry. “[Being a Viking] is not a pure ethnic phenomenon, it is a lifestyle that you can adopt whether you are non-Scandinavian or Scandinavian,” said Willerslev, adding that genetic influences from abroad both before and during the Viking age might help explain why genetic variants for dark hair were relatively common among Vikings.

此外,團隊還發現兩名奧克尼群島的個體,遺骸旁有維京劍陪葬,但是這兩人沒有斯堪地那維亞的基因世系。「(身為維京人)並不是單純的人種學現象,無論你是不是斯堪地那維亞人,都可以採取這種生活方式,」威勒斯列夫補充表示,來自國外、在維京時代之前,以及該時代期間的基因影響,也許可以解釋為什麼深色頭髮的基因變異在維京人當中相對普遍。

Steve Ashby, an expert in Viking-age archaeology from the University of York, said the study confirmed what had been suspected about movement and trade in the Viking age, but also brought fresh detail. “The evidence for gene flow with southern Europe and Asia is striking, and sits well with recent research that argues for large-scale connectivity in this period,” he said. “[The study] also provides new information about levels of contact and isolation within Scandinavia itself, and offers an interesting insight into the composition of raiding parties.”

英國約克大學的維京時代考古學專家史蒂夫‧阿什比指出,這項研究證實了先前科學家對於維京時代遷徙和貿易活動的猜測,並且帶來新的細節。「(維京人與)南歐以及亞洲基因流動的證據相當驚人,也吻合近年研究主張這段時期大規模的人類交流情況。」阿什比表示:「(這項研究)傳達新的資訊,透露斯堪地那維亞半島內部交流和隔離的程度,並且提供有趣的見解,讓我們一窺強盜集團的組成。」

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/09/27/2003744127

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