返回網站

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K051: The ‘Right to Repair’ Movement Gains Ground

反「用完即丟」 美加快推「維修權」

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K051: The ‘Right to Repair’ Movement Gains Ground

If you buy a product — a car, a smartphone, or even a tractor — and it breaks, should it be easier for you to fix it yourself?

如果你買了一個產品,例如一輛汽車、一部智慧型手機,甚至是一台拖拉機,結果它壞了,是不是應該讓你自己修理起來更容易些呢?

Manufacturers of a wide range of products have made it increasingly difficult over the years to repair things, for instance by limiting availability of parts or by putting prohibitions on who gets to tinker with them. It affects not only game consoles or farm equipment, but cellphones, military gear, refrigerators, automobiles and even hospital ventilators, the lifesaving devices that have proved crucial this year in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.

多年來,許多種產品的製造商都讓維修變得愈來愈困難,比如限制零件的取得,或對何人有權動手維修施加限制。受影響的產品不止於遊戲主機或農用機具,還有手機、軍用設備、冰箱、汽車,甚至包括今年對抗新冠病毒疫情發揮關鍵作用的救生設備—醫院裡的呼吸器。

Now, a movement known as “right to repair” is starting to make progress in pushing for laws that prohibit restrictions like these.

現在,一項名為「維修權」的運動在推動禁止此類限制的立法上,正取得進展。

In August, Democrats introduced a bill in Congress to block manufacturers’ limits on medical devices, spurred by the pandemic. In Europe, the European Commission announced plans in March for new right-to-repair rules that would cover phones, tablets and laptops by 2021.

今年8月,美國民主黨因防疫需要而在國會提出一項法案,旨在阻止製造商對醫療裝置設下限制。在歐洲,歐盟執行委員會3月宣布了新的維修權規定計畫,在2021年以前實施,涵蓋手機、平板電腦和筆記型電腦。

And in more than 20 statehouses nationwide, right-to-repair legislation has been introduced in recent years by both Republicans and Democrats.

近年來,在全美國20多個州的議會裡,共和黨和民主黨都提出了維修權法案。

Over the summer, the House advanced a funding bill that includes a requirement that the Federal Trade Commission complete a report on anti-competitive practices in the repair market and present its findings to Congress and the public.

今年夏天,眾議院推動了一項資助法案,其中責成聯邦貿易委員會做成一份關於維修市場反競爭行為的報告,並向國會和民眾提交調查結果。

The goal of right-to-repair rules, advocates say, is to require companies to make their parts, tools and information available to consumers and repair shops in order to keep devices from ending up in the scrap heap. They argue that the rules restrict people’s use of devices that they own and encourage a throwaway culture by making repairs too difficult.

倡議人士表示,維修權規定的目的是要求企業向消費者和維修商家提供零組件、工具及資訊,以免這些裝置最終被扔進垃圾堆。他們主張,目前的慣例對人們使用自己的裝置設下限制,並透過讓維修變得太過困難的方式,助長了一種用完即丟的文化。

They also argue that it’s part of a culture of planned obsolescence — the idea that products are designed to be short-lived in order to encourage people to buy more stuff. That contributes to wasted natural resources and energy use at a time when climate change requires movement in the opposite direction to rein in planet-warming emissions.

他們還認為,這是一種計畫性淘汰文化的一部分,即為了鼓勵人們購買更多東西,產品被設計成短命的。在氣候變遷需要採取反向行動來控制溫室氣體排放的此際,這助長了自然資源的浪費以及能源的使用。

Manufacturing a new device or appliance is still largely reliant on polluting sources of energy — electricity generated from burning fossil fuels, for instance — and constitutes the largest environmental impact for most products.

製造一種新設備或裝置在很大程度上,仍仰賴會造成汙染的能源,例如燃燒化石燃料產生的電力,對大多數產品而言,這正是構成最大環境影響的因素。

Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5015841

每日英語跟讀Podcast,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing
每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab
每週In-TENSE文法練習Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense

用email訂閱就可以收到通勤學英語節目更新通知。

所有文章
×

快要完成了!

我們剛剛發給你了一封電郵。 請點擊電郵中的鏈接確認你的訂閱。

好的