回顧星期天LBS - 2022重點時事趣聞 All about 2022 major news

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English,國際時事跟讀Daily Shadowing

Topic: In Europe, Doors Shut to Mideast Migrants Are Flung Open for Ukrainians

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has pushed tens of thousands of people out of their homes and fleeing across borders to escape violence. But unlike the refugees who have flooded Europe in crises over the past decade, they are being welcomed.


Countries that have for years resisted taking in refugees from wars in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan are now opening their doors to Ukrainians as Russian forces carry out a nationwide military assault. More than 2.4 million refugees have left Ukraine, according to United Nations estimates, and at least half of them have crowded onto trains, jammed highways or walked to get across their country’s borders in what officials warn could become the world’s next refugee crisis.


U.N. and U.S. officials described their concerted diplomatic push for Ukraine’s neighbors and other European nations to respond to the outpouring of need. President Joe Biden “is certainly prepared” to accept refugees from Ukraine, Jen Psaki, the White House press secretary, said Thursday, but she noted that the majority of them would probably choose to remain in Europe so they could more easily return home once the fighting ended.

聯合國和美國官員描述了他們協調一致的外交努力,要求烏克蘭的鄰國和其他歐洲國家應對大量的需求。 白宮新聞秘書珍·普薩基(Jen Psaki)週四表示,總統喬·拜登(Joe Biden)"當然準備"接受來自烏克蘭的難民,但她指出,他們中的大多數人可能會選擇留在歐洲,這樣一旦戰鬥結束,他們就可以更容易地返回家園。

That means thousands will end up in countries led by nationalist governments that in past crises have been reluctant to welcome refugees or even blocked them.


In Poland, government officials assisted by American soldiers and diplomats have set up processing centers for Ukrainians. The Polish government is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on a border wall, a project it began after refugees and migrants from the Middle East tried to reach the country last year but ended up marooned in neighboring Belarus.


The military in Hungary is allowing in Ukrainians through sections of the border that had been closed. Hungary’s hard-line prime minister, Viktor Orban, has previously called refugees a threat to his country, and his government has been accused of caging and starving them.

匈牙利軍方允許烏克蘭人通過已經關閉的部分邊界。匈牙利強硬派總理維克多·歐爾班(Viktor Orban)此前曾稱難民是對其國家的威脅,他的政府被指控將他們關在籠子里,使他們挨餓。

Farther west, Austrian Chancellor Karl Nehammer said that “of course we will take in refugees if necessary” in light of the crisis in Ukraine.

在更遠的西部,奧地利總理卡爾·內哈默爾(Karl Nehammer)表示,鑒於烏克蘭的危機,"如有必要,我們當然會接納難民"。

As recently as last fall, when he was serving as interior minister, Nehammer sought to block some Afghans seeking refuge after the Taliban overthrew the government in Kabul.

就在去年秋天,當他擔任內政部長時,內哈默爾試圖阻止一些阿富汗人在塔利班推翻喀布爾政府后尋求庇護。Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/6158664

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Topic: Political football: War and peace by other means at the World Cup

As Iran prepares to play diplomatic arch-rivals the US in the World Cup today, AFP looks at how geopolitics have spilled onto the pitch in previous World Cups:


Mussolini’s ‘Blackshirts’: France v Italy, 1938


Just a year before World War II broke out, defending champions Italy arrived in France with politics taking center stage in their clash with the hosts. Championed by Italy’s then-leader, fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, the team were booed when they came onto the pitch at the stadium near Paris.

Undeterred, the Italians gave the fascist salute to the crowd and played in black shirts, a nod to the uniform worn by Mussolini’s notorious “Blackshirts” militia. Italy won the clash 3-1 and went on to win the competition.

就在第二次世界大戰爆發前一年,衛冕者義大利隊抵達法國,在與主辦國的衝突中,政治佔據了中心位置。義大利隊受當時義大利領導人、法西斯獨裁者貝尼托‧墨索里尼所支持,他們在巴黎近郊的球場上場時,被喝倒采。 義大利隊沒被嚇倒,向群眾行了法西斯式的敬禮,並身穿黑衣出賽,這是向墨索里尼臭名昭著的「黑衫軍」民兵制服致敬。 義大利以3-1擊敗法國,且之後贏得了冠軍。

Maradona’s moment: England v Argentina, 1986


This highly charged clash took place in Mexico four years after Argentina’s defeat to Britain in the Falklands War. To the joy of their fans, Argentina took symbolic revenge, winning the quarter-final 2-1 with Diego Maradona scoring twice. His first goal was the infamous “Hand of God” goal, in which he punched the ball past England goalkeeper Peter Shilton. Then a superb solo effort dubbed the goal of the century sealed victory. “It was a final for us. It was not about winning a match, it was about eliminating the English,” Maradona said.

這場發生在墨西哥的激烈衝突,是阿根廷在福克蘭戰爭敗給英國四年後。 令阿根廷球迷欣喜的是,阿根廷隊進行了象徵性的報復,在八強賽中以2-1擊敗英格蘭,迪亞哥‧馬拉度納進了兩球。他的第一個進球便是聲名狼藉的「上帝之手」進球──他用手擊球,讓球越過英格蘭守門員彼得‧希爾頓。隨後,被稱為世紀進球的馬拉度納絕妙個人秀讓阿根廷勝券在握。 「這對我們來說就是決賽。我們不是為了贏得一場比賽,而是為了淘汰英格蘭人」,馬拉度納說。

An eagle lands: Switzerland v Serbia, 2018


This clash caused a huge outcry in Serbia after two Swiss players of Albanian origins (Kosovo and Labnai) celebrated their goals with a two-handed eagle gesture to mimic the black eagle in Albania’s flag, considered by Serbia as a nationalist provocation. The double eagle symbol is viewed as a symbol of defiance in Kosovo, which declared independence in 2008 in a move Serbia refuses to recognise.

Granit Xhaka, who was born in Kosovo, made the gesture after he scored Switzerland’s first goal, and Xherdan Shaqiri repeated it following his last-gasp winner that clinched a 2-1 victory. FIFA fined the players, although they escaped a ban.

衝突的起因,是兩名阿爾巴尼亞裔(科索沃和拉布奈)的瑞士球員在進球後,以兩手做出老鷹的手勢模仿阿爾巴尼亞國旗上的黑鷹慶祝,這在塞爾維亞引起了強烈抗議,因塞爾維亞認為這是一種民族主義挑釁。 雙鷹符號在科索沃被視為反抗的象徵,該國於2008年宣布獨立,而塞爾維亞拒絕承認科索沃的獨立。 出生在科索沃的格蘭尼特‧扎卡在為瑞士隊踢進第一球後做了這手勢,而傑爾丹‧沙奇里在他最後的致勝球以 2-1 獲勝後重複了這個手勢。 國際足總對這些球員處以罰款,雖然他們躲過了禁令。Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2022/11/29/2003789757

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Topic: Is ChatGPT the start of the AI revolution?

Have you heard of ChatGPT yet? It’s a thrilling, vexing, ontologically mesmerizing new technology created by the research group OpenAI. It can solve all your problems and answer all your questions. Or at least it will try to.


In essence, ChatGPT is a bot trained to generate human-like responses to user inputs. Through the wonders of machine learning, it’s acquired a remarkably expansive skillset. On request, it can produce basic software code, rudimentary financial analysis, amusing poems and songs, spot-on imitations, reflective essays on virtually any topic, natural-language summaries of technical papers or scientific concepts, chat-based customer service, informed predictions, personalized advice, and answers — for better or worse — to just about any question. Unusually for a chatbot, it can learn as it goes, and thus sustain engaging open-ended conversations. It is, to borrow Arthur C. Clarke’s old formulation, “indistinguishable from magic.”


Almost, anyway. One problem, which its creators concede, is that ChatGPT sometimes offers answers that are precise, authoritative and utterly wrong. A request for an obituary of Mussolini that prominently mentions skateboarding yields a disquisition on the dictator’s interest in the sport that happens to be entirely fictitious. Another soliciting advice for the Federal Reserve returns an essay that cites ostensibly legitimate sources, but that doctors the data to suit the bot’s purposes. Stack Overflow, a forum for coders, has temporarily banned responses from ChatGPT because its answers “have a high rate of being incorrect.” Students looking for a homework assistant should proceed with care.

總之差不多是這樣。其創建者承認的一個問題是,ChatGPT有時會提供準確、權威且完全錯誤的答案。要求在一篇墨索里尼的訃告中顯著提到滑板運動,結果是關於這位獨裁者對此運動之興趣的討論剛好是完全是虛構的。另一篇為美國聯準會徵求建議的文章,其中引用的出處表面上合法,但其數據已按機器人的目的被篡改。程式設計師論壇Stack Overflow暫時禁止來自ChatGPT的回覆,因為它的答案「錯誤率很高」。想要以它來協助家庭作業的學生應該小心。

The bot also seems easily confused. Try posing a classic riddle: “In total, a bat and a ball cost $1.10. If the bat costs $1.00 more than the ball, how much does the ball cost?” Haplessly for a robot, ChatGPT responds with the instinctive but wrong answer of $0.10. (The correct solution is $0.05.) The Internet’s hive mind has been joyfully cataloging other examples of the bot’s faults and frailties.

該機器人看來也很容易被搞糊塗。用一個經典的謎題試試:「一支球棒和一個球總共花費1.10美元。若球棒比球貴1.00美元,那麼球要多少錢」?對於機器人來說不幸的是,ChatGPT以0.10美元這直觀但錯誤的答案做出回應。(正確答案為 0.05美元。)網路的蜂群思維一直在愉快地記錄機器人錯誤及弱點的其他例子。

Such criticism feels misplaced. The fact is, ChatGPT is a remarkable achievement. Not long ago, a conversational bot of such sophistication seemed hopelessly out of reach. As the technology improves — and, crucially, grows more accurate — it seems likely to be a boon for coders, researchers, academics, policymakers, journalists and more, presuming that it doesn’t put them all out of work. Its effect on the knowledge economy could be profound. In previous eras, wars might’ve been fought for access to such a seemingly enchanted tool — and with good reason.

這樣的批評感覺是錯誤的。事實上,ChatGPT是一項了不起的成就。不久前,如此複雜的對話機器人似乎遙不可及。隨著技術的改進——且至關重要的是,它變得更加準確——它似乎有可能成為程式設計師、研究人員、學者、政策制定者、記者等的福音。(假設ChatGPT不會讓他們全都失業。)它對知識經濟的影響可能是深遠的。在過去的時代,戰爭可能是為了獲得這種看似迷人的工具而進行的——而且有充分的理由。Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2022/12/13/2003790595