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回顧星期天LBS - 嬰兒相關時事趣聞 All about babies

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

Topic: About Technology - ’Smart crib’ aims to help rockabye baby

As every new parent knows, sleep can go out the window after the arrival of a newborn.

如每對剛生孩子的爸媽所知,新生兒到來後,再也沒有夜夜好眠。

That was certainly the case for parents Radhika and Bharath Patil, who seeking relief for their own disrupted sleep patterns, put their electronic engineering backgrounds together to create a "smart crib".

這確實就是拉德西卡和巴拉特‧帕蒂爾的狀況,這對父母正在補救自身混亂的睡眠模式,結合他們的電子工程背景,創造了一個「智慧嬰兒床」。

Their crib, powered by artificial intelligence, combines a baby monitor, rocker, bassinet and crib in one.

他們把一台嬰兒監視器、弧形搖桿、搖籃和嬰兒床合而為一,由人工智慧來驅動嬰兒床。


"It’s not the amount of work around the baby that tires the parents, it’s the lack of sleep," Radhika Patil, Cradlewise chief executive, told Reuters in an interview.

「智慧搖籃」執行長拉德西卡‧帕蒂爾在訪問中告訴路透,「並非圍繞著嬰兒的工作量累到父母,而是睡眠不足。」

Early detection is key, she said, adding that the sooner parents can detect the baby waking up, the easier it is to get the child to fall back asleep.

她說,早期偵測是關鍵,並補充指出,父母越早發現嬰兒醒來,就越容易讓他們的孩子再度入睡。

"Once you put the baby in, the crib takes care of everything. That’s the aim," Bharath Patil said.

巴拉特‧帕蒂爾說,「只要把嬰兒放進去,嬰兒床就顧好每件事。這就是目的。」

Next Article

Topic: New Thoughts on Math Of Effective Baby Talk

It has been nearly 20 years since a landmark education study found that, by age 3, children from low-income families have heard 30 million fewer words than more affluent children, putting them at an educational disadvantage before they have begun school.

將近20年前,一項具有里程碑意義的教育研究發現,低收入戶兒童到了3歲時,已比家庭較富裕的兒童少聽到3000萬個字彙,以致就學前即已處於教育上的劣勢。

Now, a growing body of research is challenging the notion that merely exposing poor children to more language is enough to overcome the deficits they face. The quality of the communication between children and their parents and caregivers, the researchers say, is of much greater importance than the number of words a child hears.

如今,越來越多的研究向此一觀念提出挑戰,不認為光是讓貧窮兒童暴露於更多語言,就能克服他們所面對的不足。這些研究人員指出,兒童與父母及看顧者之間的溝通品質,遠比兒童聽到多少字彙來得重要。

A study presented last month at a White House conference on “bridging the word gap” found that among 2-year-olds from low-income families, quality interactions involving words — the use of shared symbols (“Look, a dog!”); rituals (“Want a bottle after your bath?”); and conversational fluency (“Yes, that is a bus!”) — were a far better predictor of language skills at age 3 than any other factor .

上月在白宮「縮小字彙差距」會議中發表的一項研究結果發現,對2歲的低收入戶兒童而言,和字彙相關的優質互動,例如使用共通的符號(「看哪,一隻狗!」);固定程序(「洗完澡想喝瓶奶?」);流暢的對話(「是的,這是一輛公車!」),在預測3歲兒童語言技巧方面,是遠勝於其他因素的更好指標。

“It’s not just about shoving words in,” said Kathryn Hirsh- Pasek, a professor of psychology at Temple University in Philadelphia and lead author of the study. “It’s about having these fluid conversations around shared rituals and objects, like pretending to have morning coffee together or using the banana as a phone. ”

費城天普大學心理學教授、該研究報告主要作者凱瑟琳.赫許─巴塞克說:「它不光是塞進字彙而已,它與圍繞著共有的固定程序和物件的流暢對話有關,例如佯裝一起喝晨間咖啡,或是拿香蕉當電話打。」


In a related finding, published in April, researchers who observed 11- and 14-month-old children in their homes found that the prevalence of one-on-one interactions and frequent use of parentese — the slow, highpitched voice commonly used for talking to babies — were reliable predictors of language ability at age 2. The total number of words had no correlation with future ability.

四月發表的一項相關研究中,研究人員觀察11個月和14個月大孩子在家中的生活情形,發現經常一對一互動,以及頻繁使用「父母語」,也就是父母常用的,對嬰兒說話的那種緩慢、高音調聲音,是2歲兒童語言能力的可靠預測指標。字彙的總數量與兒童的未來能力無關。

Even the 1995 study that introduced the notion of the 30-million- word gap, conducted by the University of Kansas psychologists Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley, found that parental tone, responsiveness and use of symbols affected a child’s I.Q. and vocabulary.

引進3000萬字彙差距概念的那項研究發表於1995年,由堪薩斯大學心理學家貝蒂.哈特和陶德.R.里斯利所完成,即使那項研究也發現,父母的語氣、反應和符號的使用,對兒童的智商高低和詞彙多寡均有影響。

But this year’s studies are the first time researchers have compared the impact of word quantity with quality of communication.

不過,今年的研究,是研究人員首次將字彙數量和溝通品質的影響作比較。


For the new study, Dr. Hirsh- Pasek and colleagues selected 60 low-income 3-year-olds with varying degrees of language proficiency from a long-term study of 1,300 children from birth to age 15.

在新研究中,赫許─巴塞克和同事,在參與一項從出生到15歲長期研究的1300名兒童中,挑選出60名3歲的低收入戶兒童,語言能力程度各不相同。

The quality of communication accounted for 27 percent of variation in expressive language skills one year later, Dr. Hirsh-Pasek said.

赫許─巴塞克說,1年後,優質溝通占表達語言技巧差異的27%。

But those who urge parents to talk to their children more say increased quantity of language inevitably leads to better quality.

但是,那些呼籲家長多跟自己孩子說話的專家表示,提高語言數量,定會帶來更高的品質。

Anne Fernald, a developmental psychologist at Stanford University in California, said, “When you learn to talk more, you tend to speak in more diverse ways and elaborate more, and that helps the child’s cognitive development.”

加州史丹福大學發展心理學家安妮.費納德說:「當你學會說得更多時,你會以更多樣、更複雜的方式說話,這有助兒童的認知發展。」

Still, Ann O’Leary, director of Too Small to Fail, a joint effort of the nonprofit Next Generation and the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation that focuses on closing the word gap, acknowledged that messages to parents could do more to emphasize quality.

「小到不能失敗」計畫負責人安.奧利里說,在提供給家長的訊息上,確實可多強調質。「小到不能失敗」由非營利組織「下一代」和「比爾、希拉蕊、雀兒喜.柯林頓基金會」共同設置,致力於縮小兒童字彙差距。

“When we’re doing these campaigns to close the word gap, they do capture the imagination, they do get people understanding that we do need to do a lot more talking,” she said. “But we also need to be more mindful that part of what we need to do is model what that talking looks like.”

她說:「當我們從事縮小兒童字彙差距努力時,它確實引起我們注意,它也讓人們理解,我們確實需要多說點話。但我們同時需要更注意的是,在我們必須從事的工作中,有一部分是提供那種談話的模範,那種談話中該有的東西。」

Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/269227/web/#2L-5280944L

Next Article

Topic: Scientists identify ancient baby bottles ...and some are really cute

Ceramic vessels, sometimes fashioned in whimsical animal forms, were used thousands of years ago as baby bottles to feed infants animal milk, according to scientists, offering an intriguing look at how and what infants were fed in prehistoric times.

科學家指出,數千年前的人類有時會把陶製容器塑造成異想天開的動物形狀,將它們作為奶瓶使用,餵嬰兒喝動物的乳汁。這項發現提供一個有趣的觀點,讓人一窺史前時代人類如何、又是用什麼來餵食嬰兒。


Archaeologists said on Sept. 25 they confirmed the function of these ceramic objects by finding chemical traces of milk belonging to animals such as cows, sheep and goats in three such items found buried in child graves in Germany.

考古學家在九月二十五日表示,他們在埋入德國兒童墳墓裡面的三個同類型物件中,發現殘留動物乳汁的化學痕跡──包括母牛、綿羊、山羊等──因此確認了這些陶製物品的用途。

The oldest of the three vessels described in the study was made between 2,800 and 3,200 years ago during the Bronze Age. Other similar objects dating back as far as about 7,000 years ago during Neolithic times have been found in various other locations, the researchers said.

在研究描述的三個容器中,年代最早的製造於兩千八百年前到三千兩百年前的青銅器時代。研究人員指出,其他許多地點都曾經發現類似的物件,最遠可追溯到大約七千年前的新石器時期。


“I think this has provided us the first direct evidence of what foods babies were eating or being weaned on in prehistory,” said biomolecular archaeologist Julie Dunne of the University of Bristol in the UK and lead author of the study, published in the journal Nature. “I think this shows us the love and care these prehistoric people had for their babies.”

該篇研究發表於期刊《自然》,主要作者為英國布里斯托大學的生物分子考古學家茱莉‧鄧恩,她表示:「我認為這項發現提供第一手直接證據,顯示史前時代的小寶寶吃什麼食物,或是用什麼食物斷奶。」她也指出:「我想,這項發現也向我們展現這些史前時代人類對小嬰兒的愛與關懷。」

These objects, little enough to fit into a baby’s hands, served as vessels for milk, with a narrow spout for the baby to suckle liquid. While the three objects examined for the study were somewhat plain, others boasted lively shapes including animal heads with long ears or horns and human-looking feet.

這些物件小到能夠放進嬰兒的小手中,是用來盛裝奶水的容器,瓶身上附有一個狹長的壺嘴,讓小寶寶能夠從中吸吮液體。雖然研究檢驗用的三個物件外觀稍嫌平淡無奇,但其他同類陶器形狀卻相當生動,有著動物的頭,附著長長的耳朵或是犄角,以及像人類的腳。

“I find them incredibly cute. And prehistoric people may have thought so, too — they would certainly have a dual function of entertaining the children just like modern stuffed animals,” said archaeologist Katharina Rebay-Salisbury of the Austrian Academy of Sciences’ Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, and a co-author of the study. “They testify to the creativity and playfulness we often forget to attribute to our ancestors,” Rebay-Salisbury added.

研究的共同作者、奧地利科學院東方與歐洲考古研究所的考古學家凱瑟琳娜‧雷貝─索爾斯伯里表示:「我覺得這些陶器難以置信地可愛。而且搞不好史前的人們也是這樣覺得──這些陶器很可能還具備另一項娛樂小孩的雙重功能,就像是現代的填充玩具。」她補充說:「這些陶器證實老祖先們具備的創意和愛開玩笑的個性,那都是我們經常忘記的。」

Life at the time was not easy, Rebay-Salisbury added, with many people living in unhygienic conditions, experiencing famine and disease and facing low life expectancy. During the Bronze Age and subsequent Iron Age in Europe, perhaps about a third of all newborns died before their first birthday and only about half of children reached adulthood, Rebay-Salisbury said.

雷貝─索爾斯伯里還指出,當時的生活並不容易,原因在於許多人都居住在不衛生的環境中、遭受饑荒與疾病,還要面臨很短的預期壽命。她表示,在青銅器時代以及接下來的鐵器時代,歐洲地區可能有大約三分之一的新生兒在一歲之前死亡,而且大概只有一半的小孩能夠順利長大成人。

These feeding vessels may have made life easier for mothers, as animal milk could substitute for breastfeeding, the researchers said. “Duties of mothering — amongst which feeding is an important one — can also be undertaken by other members of the community when children are fed with feeding vessels,” Rebay-Salisbury said.

研究人員表示,這些餵食用的容器會讓母親們的生活輕鬆一些,因為動物的乳汁可以代替親餵母乳。雷貝─索爾斯伯里指出:「當小孩可以用器具餵食的時候,為人母的諸多責任──其中,最重要的一項是餵食嬰兒──也就可以由部落的其他成員接手幫忙。」

Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2019/10/06/2003723440

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