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回顧星期天LBS - 義大利相關時事趣聞 All about Italy

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

Hi there!歡迎收聽Look Back Sunday回顧星期天,在這個節目John老師會彙整過去不同國家與主題的熱門跟讀文章,讓你可以在十五分鐘內吸收最精華的世界時事趣聞!我們這週聽聽義大利相關的文章,Let's get started!

Topic: Inside Italy’s Shadow Economy

In a second-floor apartment in the southern Italian town of Santeramo in Colle, a middle-aged woman sat in a black-padded chair this summer, hard at work at her kitchen table. She carefully stitched a sophisticated woolen coat, the sort of style that will sell for 800 to 2,000 euros ($935 to $2,340) when it arrives in stores this month as part of the fall and winter collection of MaxMara, the Italian luxury fashion brand.

在義大利南部城鎮聖埃拉莫因科萊一棟公寓的二樓,一名中年婦女今年夏天坐在黑色軟墊的椅子上,在廚房用桌前辛勤地工作著。她以針線細心縫製一件精緻的羊毛外套,這個款式本月送進商店時,標價800至2,000歐元(935至2,340美元)不等,是義大利奢侈品牌MaxMara秋冬系列的一部分。

But the woman, who asked not to be named for fear that she could lose her livelihood, receives just 1 euro from the factory that employs her for each meter of fabric she completes.

不過,擔心可能因此失去生計而不願透露姓名的這名女性,每完成1公尺面料,只能從雇用她的工廠那裡拿到1歐元。

“It takes me about one hour to sew one meter, so about four to five hours to complete an entire coat,” said the woman, who works without a contract, or insurance, and is paid in cash on a monthly basis. “I try to do two coats per day.”

這名女性說:「我大概1小時縫1公尺,大約4到5小時完成一整件外套。我試著每天做兩件大衣。」 她的工作沒有聘雇合約,也不提供保險,僅按月支領現金。

The unregulated work she completes in her apartment is outsourced to her from a local factory that also manufactures outerwear for some of the best-known names in the luxury business, including Louis Vuitton and Fendi. The most she has ever earned, she said, was 24 euros ($28) for an entire coat.

她在公寓內完成,未受任何規範的這份工作,是當地一家工廠外包給她的,該廠還替奢侈品界另一些知名品牌製造外套,包括路易威登和芬迪。她說,她所獲得的最高收入,是一整件外套24歐元(合28美元)。

Homework — working from home or a small workshop as opposed to in a factory — is a cornerstone of the fast-fashion supply chain. It is particularly prevalent in countries such as India, Bangladesh, Vietnam and China, where millions of low-paid and predominantly female homeworkers are some of the most unprotected in the industry, because of their irregular employment status, isolation and lack of legal recourse.

家庭代工─ 在家中或小型工作室而非工廠工作─已成為快速時尚供應鏈的基石。在印度、孟加拉、越南和中國這些國家,家庭代工尤其普遍,數以百萬計,且主要是女性的家庭代工從業人員 ,因就業狀況不穩定,孤立和欠缺法律追索權,屬於該行業中最缺乏保護的一群。

That similar conditions exist in Italy, however, and facilitate the production of some of the most expensive wardrobe items money can buy, may shock those who see the “Made in Italy” label as a byword for sophisticated craftsmanship.

然而,類似狀況同樣存在於義大利,而且幫忙生產錢能買到的一些最昂貴衣物,卻可能讓視「義大利製造」標籤為精緻工藝代名詞的人震驚。

Increased pressure from globalization and growing competition at all levels of the market mean that the assumption implicit in the luxury promise — that part of the value of such a good is that it is made in the best conditions, by highly skilled workers, who are paid fairly — is at times put under threat.

全球化帶來更大壓力,市場各層面競爭亦日益激烈,意味奢侈品的承諾之一,這種商品部分價值來自它在最佳狀態下,由高技術、拿合理報酬的工人製造的這項隱含的假設,不時受到威脅。

Although they are not exposed to what most people would consider sweatshop conditions, the homeworkers are allotted what might seem close to sweatshop wages. Italy does not have a national minimum wage, but roughly 5 to 7 euros per hour is considered an appropriate standard by many unions and consulting firms. In extremely rare cases, a highly skilled worker can earn as much as 8 to 10 euros an hour. But the homeworkers earn significantly less, regardless of whether they are involved in leatherwork, embroidery or another artisanal task.

儘管他們的處境還不到大多數人會認為是血汗工廠的境地,但家庭代工的工資似已接近血汗工廠。義大利沒有設定全國最低工資,但許多工會和顧問公司認為每小時5-7歐元是適當標準。在極少數情況下,高技術工人每小時可賺取8-10歐元。但是家庭代工的收入低了許多,無論他們從事的是皮革製品,刺繡或其他手工藝工作。

Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/332436/web/

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Topic: White truffles fetch 75,000 euros at Italian auction 義大利拍賣會 白松露七萬五千歐元高價拍出

Alba, a small town in the northwestern region of Piemonte, is known as Italy’s white truffle capital.

阿爾巴是位於義大利西北部皮埃蒙特的一個小鎮,被稱為義大利白松露之都。

It has hosted Italy’s most famous white truffle market, during which the auction is held, for close to 90 years.

義大利最著名的白松露市集在此舉辦已近九十年,松露拍賣會則在此間舉行。

Every year at this time it hosts the famous International Alba White Truffle Fair, which attracts around 100,000 visitors from all over the world who come to buy, sell and smell the tasty tuber.

每年此時,阿爾巴舉辦著名的國際阿爾巴白松露會展,吸引了來自世界各地的大約十萬名訪客前來,來買賣和嗅聞這些美味的蕈類。

Dry weather and changing climate patterns have hit production and sent prices soaring. Over the past 25 years, there has been a 30 percent decrease in truffle production. In some places, they are disappearing altogether.

乾燥的天氣和不斷變化的氣候模式已重創松露的產量,並使其價格飛漲。在過去的二十五年間,松露產量已下降了百分之三十。在某一些地方,松露正徹底消失。

Truffle hunter Marilena Tarable says with this week’s much needed rain the truffles have started growing a little bigger and a bit rounder because the earth has softened.

松露獵人馬利雷娜‧塔拉布雷表示,本週降下了及時雨,因此松露已開始變大、變圓了一點,因為泥土變軟了。

“But up until now, with the very hard earth, it’s really hard to extract them,” she says.

「但是到目前為止,因為泥土很硬,要拔起松露真的很難。」她說道。

A highlight of the fair is the truffle auction, now in its eighteenth year, with proceeds going to charitable causes. This Sunday it took place in Grinzane Cavour Castle with live satellite links to Hong Kong and Dubai. The winning bidder for the biggest truffle at this year’s auction, from Hong Kong, paid 75,000 euros for a well-rounded truffle weighing 850 grams.

會展的一大亮點是松露拍賣,今年是第十八年舉辦,所得款項將捐助慈善事業。拍賣會上週日在格林贊‧卡烏城堡舉行,現場並有衛星連線至香港和杜拜。

今年拍賣會上最大松露的得標者來自香港,花了七萬五千歐元買下了一枚重達八五○公克、形狀飽滿的松露。

Isabelle Gianicolo of the National Truffle Study Centre noted that the auction price was “symbolic” and did not necessarily reflect the true market price, since the proceeds were donated to charitable causes.

全國松露研究中心的伊莎貝‧加尼可洛指出,拍賣價格是「象徵性的」,並不一定反映實際的市場價格,因為拍賣的收益要捐贈給慈善事業的。

Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2017/11/18/2003682450

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Topic: Fresh pizza vending machine prompts curiosity and horror in Rome

Raffaele Esposito, the 19th century Neapolitan credited with inventing Italy’s most famous type of pizza, may be turning in his grave:Rome has a new vending machine which slides out freshly cooked pizzas in just three minutes.

義大利人克勞狄歐.贊皮加嘗試羅馬的披薩自動販賣機製作的披薩。 (路透檔案照)

被譽為義大利最有名披薩發明人的19世紀拿波里人拉斐爾.艾斯波西多,或許會死不瞑目:羅馬現在有一種新的販賣機,可在短短3分鐘內送出新鮮烤出爐的披薩。

Buyers using the flaming red "Mr. Go Pizza" machine can choose from four different kinds of pizzas costing from 4.50 to 6 euros. The machine kneads and tops the dough and customers can watch the pizza cook behind a small glass window.

顧客可在這台火紅色的「披薩隨來先生」販賣機上,從4種不同的披薩中選擇,售價介於4.5到6歐元不等。機器會揉麵團、在麵團上加配料,顧客可隔著一扇小玻璃窗觀看製作過程。

"It looks good but it is much smaller than in a restaurant and there is less topping," said Claudio Zampiga, a pensioner.

退休人士克勞狄歐.贊皮加說,「看起來不錯,但是比在餐廳的小一點,而且料少了點。」

Gina, a pensioner who declined to give her surname, rejected the concept outright. "Terrible. Pizza really needs to be eaten hot, immediately. This doesn’t work for me," she said.

拒絕透露姓氏的退休女子吉娜完全拒絕這個概念。「糟糕。披薩真的需要趁熱吃,對我來說,這不行。」

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Topic: Italy says arrivederci to cafe culture 義大利向咖啡文化說再見

Like pizza and ice cream parlours, the coffee bar is sacred in Italy. But the tradition of going for a cappuccino or an espresso is under threat from a new menace - the coffee machine. Thanks to aggressive marketing by manufacturers, who are practically giving them away free in offices, factories, universities and even train stations, self-service coffee is invading Italy and putting in peril the livelihood of many baristas.

就像披薩和冰淇淋店一樣,咖啡吧在義大利具有神聖不可侵犯的地位。但義大利人到咖啡吧喝杯卡布奇諾或濃縮咖啡的傳統現在受到新對手的威脅 - 咖啡機。在咖啡機製造商祭出強勢促銷手段,在辦公室、工廠、大學、甚至火車站裡幾乎免費奉送咖啡之後,自助式咖啡正大舉入侵義大利,許多咖啡師傅的生計也岌岌可危。

New figures show half a million automatic coffee machines have been installed in the past year in public places, serving an estimated two million 'portions' of coffee.

根據最新統計數字,過去一年間義大利的公共場所內已裝設了五十萬台自動咖啡機,估計可提供兩百萬份咖啡。

One of the reasons for the change is that Italians are struggling to deal with a faster pace of life, under pressure to do more, earn more and not waste time.

造成這項改變的原因之一,是義大利人正努力適應更快的生活步調,應付必須做更多事、賺更多錢、不要浪費時間的壓力。

The depersonalisation of the coffee rite is sneaking into Italian homes as well. Sales of automatic machines were recently declared in a brides' magazine to be the most sought-after gift of young couples.

這種去除人性色彩的喝咖啡儀式也正偷偷潛入義大利的家庭中。一本新娘雜誌最近就宣稱,自動咖啡機是年輕新人最想要的結婚禮物。Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1453710; https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/paper/39829

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