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Hi there!歡迎收聽Look Back Sunday回顧星期天,在這個節目John老師會彙整過去不同國家與主題的熱門跟讀文章,讓你可以在十五分鐘內吸收最精華的世界時事趣聞!我們這週聽聽挪威相關的文章,Let's get started!

Topic: Dark hair was common among Vikings, genetic study confirms

They may have had a reputation for trade, braids and fearsome raids, but the Vikings were far from a single group of flaxen-haired, sea-faring Scandinavians. A genetic study of Viking-age human remains has not only confirmed that Vikings from different parts of Scandinavia set sail for different parts of the world, but has revealed that dark hair was more common among Vikings than Danes today.

維京人或許以貿易、髮辮,以及讓人聞風喪膽的燒殺擄掠聞名,但是他們並非全部來自單一群體,不只是一群亞麻色頭髮、經年航海的斯堪地那維亞人。近日一項維京時代人類遺骸的基因研究,證實維京人從斯堪地那維亞半島的不同地區揚帆航向世界各地,更透露維京人頭髮多為深色,跟今日的丹麥人相比更為普遍。

What’s more, while some were born Vikings, others adopted the culture — or perhaps had it thrust upon them. “Vikings were not restricted to blond Scandinavians,” said Eske Willerslev, a co-author of the research from the University of Cambridge and the University of Copenhagen.

更重要的是,儘管有些北歐人天生就是維京人,其他族群也會吸收維京文化──或是可能被迫接受。該研究由英國劍橋大學和丹麥哥本哈根大學合作,共同作者之一艾斯克‧威勒斯列夫指出:「維京人並非僅限於金髮碧眼的斯堪地那維亞人。」

Writing in the journal Nature, Willerslev and colleagues report how they sequenced the genomes of 442 humans who lived across Europe between about 2,400BC and 1,600AD, with the majority from the Viking age — a period that stretched from around 750AD to 1050AD. The study also drew on existing data from more than 1,000 ancient individuals from non-Viking times, and 3,855 people living today.

在這篇刊登於《自然》期刊的研究中,威勒斯列夫和他的同事闡述他們如何定序四百四十二人的基因體。這些研究對象來自歐洲各地,大約生活在西元前兩千四百年到西元一千六百年間,其中大多數人屬於維京時代──也就是橫跨西元七百五十年到一千零五十年之間的時期。該研究也運用現有的基因資料,其中包括超過一千名並非生活在維京時代的古老人類,以及三千八百五十五名現代人。

Among their results the team found that from the iron age, southern European genes entered Denmark and then spread north, while — to a lesser extent — genes from Asia entered Sweden. “Vikings are, genetically, not purely Scandinavian,” said Willerslev. However, the team found Viking age Scandinavians were not a uniform population, but clustered into three main groups — a finding that suggests Vikings from different parts of Scandinavia did not mix very much.

在他們的研究結果中,團隊發現南歐的基因在鐵器時代進入丹麥,而後往北傳播,也有少部分來自亞洲的基因進入瑞典。威勒斯列夫指出:「維京人,從基因上來說,並非純然是斯堪地那維亞人。」另外,團隊發現維京時代的斯堪地那維亞人並非種族齊一的人口,而是由三個主要族群組成──這項發現顯示:來自斯堪地那維亞不同地區的維京人並未充分融合。

The team found these groups roughly map on to present-day Scandinavian countries, although Vikings from south-west Sweden were genetically similar to their peers in Denmark. Genetic diversity was greatest in coastal regions. Further analysis confirmed the long-standing view that most Vikings in England came from Denmark, as reflected in place names and historical records, while the Baltic region was dominated by Swedish Vikings, and Vikings from Norway ventured to Ireland, Iceland, Greenland and the Isle of Man.

團隊表示,這些族群的分布範圍大約和今日的北歐三國疆界疊合,不過瑞典西南部的維京人在基因上和丹麥維京人較為相近。基因多樣性則在沿岸地區最為顯著。進一步的分析更證實一項存在已久的學界看法:英國大多數的維京人來自丹麥,正如同地名和歷史紀錄反映出的情況,而巴爾幹地區是由瑞典維京人統治,至於挪威的維京人則冒險前往愛爾蘭、冰島、格陵蘭以及今日的英屬曼島。

However, the team says remains from Russia revealed some Vikings from Denmark also travelled east. The study also revealed raids were likely a local affair: the team found four brothers and another relative died in Salme, Estonia, in about 750AD, in what is thought could have been a raid, with others in the party likely to have been from the same part of Sweden.

不過,團隊指出,來自俄國的遺骸顯示,丹麥的維京人也曾往東方旅行。研究也透露維京人的劫掠可能只是「地方事件」:團隊發現,有四名兄弟和一名親戚,大約在西元七百五十年死於愛沙尼亞的薩爾梅,看起來是一場劫掠的結果,其他參與者可能也來自瑞典的同一個地區。

In addition, the team found two individuals from Orkney, who were buried with Viking swords, had no Scandinavian genetic ancestry. “[Being a Viking] is not a pure ethnic phenomenon, it is a lifestyle that you can adopt whether you are non-Scandinavian or Scandinavian,” said Willerslev, adding that genetic influences from abroad both before and during the Viking age might help explain why genetic variants for dark hair were relatively common among Vikings.

此外,團隊還發現兩名奧克尼群島的個體,遺骸旁有維京劍陪葬,但是這兩人沒有斯堪地那維亞的基因世系。「(身為維京人)並不是單純的人種學現象,無論你是不是斯堪地那維亞人,都可以採取這種生活方式,」威勒斯列夫補充表示,來自國外、在維京時代之前,以及該時代期間的基因影響,也許可以解釋為什麼深色頭髮的基因變異在維京人當中相對普遍。

Steve Ashby, an expert in Viking-age archaeology from the University of York, said the study confirmed what had been suspected about movement and trade in the Viking age, but also brought fresh detail. “The evidence for gene flow with southern Europe and Asia is striking, and sits well with recent research that argues for large-scale connectivity in this period,” he said. “[The study] also provides new information about levels of contact and isolation within Scandinavia itself, and offers an interesting insight into the composition of raiding parties.”

英國約克大學的維京時代考古學專家史蒂夫‧阿什比指出,這項研究證實了先前科學家對於維京時代遷徙和貿易活動的猜測,並且帶來新的細節。「(維京人與)南歐以及亞洲基因流動的證據相當驚人,也吻合近年研究主張這段時期大規模的人類交流情況。」阿什比表示:「(這項研究)傳達新的資訊,透露斯堪地那維亞半島內部交流和隔離的程度,並且提供有趣的見解,讓我們一窺強盜集團的組成。」

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/09/27/2003744127

Next Article

Topic: In Norway, Electric and Hybrid Cars Outsell Conventional Models

Sales of electric and hybrid cars in Norway outpaced those running on fossil fuels last year, cementing the country’s position as a global leader in the push to restrict vehicle emissions.

Norway, a major oil exporter, would seem an unlikely champion of newer, cleaner-running vehicles. But the country offers generous incentives that make electric cars cheaper to buy, and provides additional benefits once the vehicles are on the road.

去年,挪威的電動車和油電混合車的銷量超越使用化石燃料的汽車,奠定了挪威推動車輛減排全球領導者的地位。

挪威是個石油出口大國,似乎不太會是更新型態、更乾淨車輛的倡導國。然而挪威卻提供大方的獎勵,讓消費者購買電動車時價格更親民,車輛一旦上路,還有額外的好康。

Countries around the world have ramped up their promotion of hybrid and electric cars. As China tries to improve air quality and dominate new vehicle technology, the government there wants 1 in 5 cars sold to run on alternative fuels by 2025. France and Britain plan to end the sale of gasoline- and diesel-powered cars by 2040.

Norway is ahead of the rest of the world. About 52 percent of the new cars sold in the country last year ran on new forms of fuel, according the data released by Norway’s Road Traffic Advisory Board, OFV. The share of diesel cars, which were once considered more environmentally friendly but are now in the spotlight for their noxious emissions, fell sharply.

世界各國紛紛對電動車和油電車的推廣加大力度。在中國試圖改善空氣品質,主宰新型車輛技術之際,政府希望2025年前當地售出的汽車有五分之一使用替代燃料。法國和英國計畫在2040年前停售汽、柴油車輛。

挪威目前在世上居於最領先地位。根據挪威道路交通諮詢委員會(OFV)發布的資料,去年該國銷售的新車,約52%使用新型燃料。柴油車的占比劇降。柴油車一度被認為更環保,如今卻因排放有害氣體而成眾矢之的。

“This trend will only increase,” Oyvind Solberg Thorsen, OFV’s director, said in a statement. “This is good for both road safety and the environment.”

Although electric vehicles make up just a small portion of the global market now, automakers — including those, like Tesla, that produce only electric models, and giants like Volkswagen — have bet billions of dollars that such vehicles will soon be as cheap and ubiquitous as conventional cars. Investments in charging stations and other technology connected to electric vehicles are also increasing.

OFV執行長歐文德.梭伯格.索爾森發表聲明說:「這種趨勢只會加快。這對道路安全和環境有好處。」

儘管電動車現今僅占全球市場的一小部分,汽車製造商─包括像特斯拉那種只生產電動車的,以及像福斯汽車這樣的巨擘,都已在這種汽車賭上數十億美元,認為它很快就會和傳統汽車一樣便宜以及無所不在。和電動車相關的充電站以及其他技術的投資也日益增多。

General Motors and Ford Motor have said they will shift their focus to electric models, while carmakers like Volvo have moved to phase out the internal combustion engine entirely. Joining the fray are entrepreneurs like James Dyson who have their own plans to build electric vehicles.

As the market grows, makers of electric cars are facing difficulties. Tesla has lagged in its production of the Model 3, its first mass-market offering. And a slump in overall car sales in the United States could put a crimp in the expansion of electric vehicles.

Norway, which wants to phase out diesel and gasoline cars by 2025, offers a counterexample.

The country’s embrace of electric cars has been hastened by hefty government subsidies and tax breaks that make the technology more affordable.

通用汽車和福特汽車都已表示,他們將把重點轉向電動車,而像富豪汽車這些汽車製造商則開始逐步徹底淘汰內燃機汽車。加入戰局的還有像詹姆斯.戴森這樣的企業家,他們也各有打造電動車的計畫。

隨市場增長,電動車製造商也面臨困境。特斯拉的第一個大眾市場車款特斯拉三型電動車的生產進度落後。美國整體汽車銷量下滑,也可能成為電動車擴張的一道障礙。 冀望2025年前逐步淘汰柴油和汽油車的挪威,則是一個反例。

這個國家擁抱電動車的速度,因政府提供大量補貼和減稅而加快,政府的政策讓這項技術變得更買得起。

Source:https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/323758/web/

Next Article

Topic: Babies wanted: Nordic countries crying for kids

"Norway needs more children! I don’t think I need to tell anyone how this is done," Norway’s Prime Minister Erna Solberg said cheekily, but she was raising a real concern.

「挪威需要更多小孩!我想我不用告訴所有人該怎麼做吧?」儘管挪威總理索柏格語帶戲謔,卻點出嚴重的問題。

The Nordic countries were long a bastion of strong fertility rates on an Old Continent that is rapidly getting older. But they are now experiencing a decline that threatens their welfare model, which is funded by taxpayers.

在快速高齡化的「舊大陸」(歐洲),北歐國家向來是高生育率的堡壘,但如今也面臨生育率下滑的問題,對透過全民納稅來維繫的社會福利制度構成威脅。

In Norway, Finland and Iceland, birth rates dropped to historic lows in 2017, with 1.49 to 1.71 children born per woman. Just a few years earlier, their birth rates hovered close to the 2.1 level required for their populations to remain stable.

在挪威、芬蘭及冰島,生育率在2017年降至歷史新低,平均每位女性生育1.49至1.71名兒女。再早幾年,這三國的生育率還徘徊在接近維持人口穩定所需的2.1人。

The Nordic region boasts a wealth of family-friendly initiatives, such as flexible working hours, a vast network of affordable daycares and generous parental leave systems.

北歐地區以擁有充裕的家庭友善計畫而自豪,像是彈性工時、範圍廣泛且索價低廉的日間照護網絡,以及慷慨的育嬰假機制。

When all that is still not enough to encourage people to have more children, immigration can be a lifeline - or a threat, depending on the point of view.

要是這些仍不足以鼓勵民眾多多生養小孩,移民可以是一線生機,但也可能是威脅,端看以什麼觀點視之。

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1285655

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