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Global pollution kills millions and threatens “survival of human”

環境汙染年奪百萬人命 專家憂人類滅絕

· 每日跟讀單元 Daily English

Pollution kills at least nine million people and costs trillions of US dollars every year, according to the most comprehensive global analysis to date, which warns the crisis “threatens the continuing survival of human societies.”

根據迄今最全面的全球分析報告指出,汙染造成每年至少九百萬人死亡,以及數兆美元的開銷,並警告此危機「威脅人類社會的存續」。

Toxic air, water, soils and workplaces are responsible for the diseases that kill one in every six people around the world, a landmark report has found, and the true total could be millions higher because the impact of many pollutants are poorly understood.

這份具里程碑意義的報告發現,全世界每六名死者中,便有一人是死於汙染所造成的疾病,這些汙染包括有毒的空氣、水、土壤與工作場所;而由於我們對許多污染物所造成的影響了解甚少,實際數字可能會高出數百萬人。

The vast majority of the pollution deaths occur in poorer nations and in some, such as India, Chad and Madagascar, pollution causes a quarter of all deaths.

大多數因污染所造成的死亡案例發生在較貧窮的國家。在某些國家,例如印度、查德和馬達加斯加,汙染甚至佔了所有死亡成因的四分之一。

“Pollution is one of the great existential challenges of the Anthropocene era,” concluded the authors of the Commission on Pollution and Health report, published in the Lancet on Friday. “Pollution endangers the stability of the Earth’s support systems and threatens the continuing survival of human societies.”

污染與健康委員會上週五在著名醫學期刊《刺胳針》上發表的報告總結道:「污染是〔人類主導的〕人類時代的巨大挑戰之一,攸關人類存亡。」「污染危害了地球維生系統的穩定性,威脅到人類社群的存續。」

The commission report combined data from the WHO and elsewhere and found air pollution was the biggest killer, leading to heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and other illnesses. Outdoor air pollution, largely from vehicles and industry, caused 4.5 million deaths a year and indoor air pollution, from wood and dung stoves, caused 2.9 million.

委員會報告綜合了世界衛生組織和其他單位相關數據,發現空氣污染會造成心臟病、中風、肺癌等疾病,是最大的殺手。戶外空氣污染主要來自車輛和工業,每年造成四五○萬人死亡;而室內汙染主要來自木柴和糞便燃料爐灶,每年造成二九○萬人死亡。

The next biggest killer is water pollution, often with sewage, which is linked to 1.8 million deaths as a result of gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic infections. Workplace pollution, including exposure to toxins, carcinogens and secondhand tobacco smoke, resulted in 800,000 deaths from diseases including pneumoconiosis in coal workers and bladder cancer in dye workers. Lead pollution, the one metal for which some data is available, was linked to 500,000 deaths a year.

第二大殺手是水汙染,尤其是污水所造成的胃腸道疾病和寄生蟲感染,每年造成一八○萬人死亡。工作場所的污染包括接觸毒素、致癌物質和二手煙,每年造成八十萬人死亡,煤礦工人的塵肺病和染色工人的膀胱癌等皆屬之。鉛是有數據可資參考的金屬,每年有五十萬例死亡與鉛污染有關。

Low-income and rapidly industrializing countries are worst affected, suffering 92 percent of pollution-related deaths, with Somalia suffering the highest rate of pollution deaths. India, where both traditional and modern pollution are severe, has by far the largest number of pollution deaths at 2.5 million. China is second with 1.8 million and Russia and the US are also in the top 10.

低收入和快速工業化的國家所受到的影響最為嚴重,與污染有關的死亡人數中,有百分之九十二是在這些國家。污染有關的死亡佔所有死亡數的比例,以索馬利亞為最高。印度受到傳統和現代污染源的危害嚴重,目前是因污染而死亡人數最多的國家,達到二五○萬人。中國以一八○萬居次,俄羅斯和美國也在前十名。

The editor-in-chief of the Lancet, Richard Horton, and the executive editor, Pamela Das, write: “No country is unaffected by pollution. Human activities, including industrialization, urbanization, and globalization, are all drivers of pollution. We hope the commission findings will persuade leaders at the national, state, provincial and city levels to make pollution a priority. Current and future generations deserve a pollution-free world.”

《刺胳針》的總編輯理查‧霍頓博士和執行編輯潘米拉‧達斯博士說:「沒有一個國家不受到污染的影響。包括工業化、城市化和全球化在內的人類活動都是造成污染的原因。我們希望調查的發現能夠說服國家、州、省、市等各階層的領導人,把防治污染作為優先事項。現今和未來的世代都該擁有一個無污染的世界。」

Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2017/10/25/2003680966/2

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